Nitrogen is essential to the survival of all life forms yet the natural abundance of useable nitrogen is so low that massive human alteration of the nitrogen cycle has been required to sustain the feeding of the world's population. The alteration has been made even greater by the release of nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion. These changes in the nitrogen cycle have exacerbated a number of environmental issues, including smog, acid deposition, climate change, coastal eutrophication and stratospheric ozone depletion, all of which have impacts on people and ecosystems on a regional or global basis.
Delwiche (1970) voiced initial concern about global scale alteration of the N cycle. Over the intervening three decades since his seminal work, there have been steady advances in our understanding of the natural and anthropogenic components of the N cycle. SCOPE has played an important role in these advances. In 1978 the SCOPE/UNEP International Nitrogen Unit was established which lead to the first assessment of existing knowledge (Clark and Rosswall, 1981).
International SCOPE project on Nitrogen Transport and Transformations (1994-2002) designed to analyze nitrogen flows at the scale of large regions.
Several major reports were produced, the most recent being Boyer and Howarth (2002)
Major International Conferences
INI Structure and Strategy
INI will be organized on a regional basis with an overall umbrella body (Scientific Advisory Committee) to provide coordination. Regional Centers will be established for North America, Latin America, Asia, Europe, and Africa (e.g., INI-Asia). The activities for a given Center will depend upon the 'maturity' of nitrogen science and policy for that region. Each Regional Center will use a tri-phased approach to work towards the overall goal of the INI
· Phase III: Implementation of scientific, engineering and policy tools to solve problems.
· To propose region-specific solutions towards problems identified in Phase I.
· To direct activities primarily towards working with critical groups to implement identified solutions.
The INI Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) is responsible for overall coordination and conduct of the program and relies on the Consultants for advice or action on specific topics to broaden the base of the program and appointed as needed in the future.
· Establish Regional Centers that are responsible for applying the three-phased approach to specific regions.
· Develop an integrated database on nitrogen, useable by a wide variety of interested groups (e.g., scientists, industry representatives, and policy makers), and promote both research and education on nitrogen-related issues.
· Form a Steering Committee; at least one member of the INI Scientific Advisory Committee associated with each Center to assure coordination between the Regional Center and the overall INI.
· Identify the constituencies within each region on N cycle alternations that should be involved in Phase III.
· SCOPE project on Environmental Consequences of Animal Production.
Groups to join SCOPE and IGBP as INI Sponsors: the Dutch government, UNEP, Ecological Society of America and the International Fertilizer Industry Association.
These milestones include coordination meetings, the establishment of the initial Regional Centers, one of which will focus on Asia and conferences. During the course of the program, we will ask other organizations to become sponsors to involve additional sectors that have an interest in the overall INI goal and to also provide a broader foundation for funding.
December 2002 Obtain SCOPE and IGBP support for INI
January 2003 Formulate SAC membership
January 2003 Submit ICSU proposal
February 2003 Announcement of INI at AAAS Symposium, Denver USA
March 2003 Brazil N workshop; discuss INI-Latin America
May/June 2003 Scientific Advisory Committee meeting
Fall 2003 Establish INI-Asia; begin Phase I
April 2004 Denitrification (N2EX) Workshop
October 2004 3rd International Nitrogen Conference, China
Boyer, EB and RH Howarth, (eds). 2002. The Nitrogen Cycles at Regional to Global Scales. Kluwer Academic Publishers
Clark, FE and T Rosswall, (eds). 1981. Terrestrial Nitrogen Cycles. Processes, Ecosystems Strategies and Management Impact. Ecol. Bull. (Stockholm) 33.
Delwiche CC. 1970. The nitrogen cycle. Scientific American 223: 137-146
Galloway JN, EB Cowling, and E Kessler (eds). 2002. Optimizing Nitrogen Management in Food and Energy Productions, and Environmental Change. Ambio (Special Issue) 31 (2).